Resources

Welcome to the resource archive. Here you can find summaries of books, magazine articles, websites, and other media dealing with the history of early animation.

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  • John K Stuff: When Cartoons Evolved 3

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    "Blog which argues that although in the past cartoons underwent a constant process of stylistic change, in the present they no longer do. It uses Bugs Bunny and South Park to exemplify its argument."

    Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics

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    "Links to the University of Toronto libraries online resources for the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. Student, faculty or guest access required."

    Living Life Inside The Lines: Tales From The Golden Age Of Animation

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    Author: Martha Sigall

    "The author worked with the most famous animators working at Warner Bros. Animation Studio, for example Chuck Jones, Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Frank Tashlin, Friz Freleng, William Hanna & Joseph Barbera and others, and at the MGM Studio.  The auth..."

    Looney Tunes.com

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    "The entire web site is devoted to Looney Tunes. There is a possibility to watch various episodes of this animation online, play an online games with the favorite characters from Looney Tunes, be a part of a forum and chat both devoted to Looney Tunes. "

    Mark Steven Greenfield

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    "The website for an artist whose works tackle the phenomena of blackface and minstrels."

    Martin Arnold Films

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    "Martin Arnold's films use segments of old American cartoons, from which he has obscured and deleted features in order to focus viewer attention on the sound, repetition and movement of specific and recurring forms.His work has been shown at 168 inter..."

    Mayerson on Animation: Jones Against the Tide

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    "Blogspot for Mayerson on Animation. Linked article from 1964, which is written by Chuck Jones where he describes then new facets of animation."

    Michael Sporn Animation Inc.

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    "Website provides filmography for Michael Sporn Animation Inc.; as well as press, bios, awards and clips."

    Mouse Morality: The Rhetoric of Disney Animated Film

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    Author: Annalee R. Ward

    "The author uses a variety of analytical tools based in rhetorical criticism to examine the moral messages taught in five recent Disney animated films: The Lion King, Pocahontas, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hercules, and Mulan. Taking the films on th..."

    Multiculturalism and the Mouse: Race and Sex in Disney Entertainment

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    Author: Douglas Brode

    "In this work the author argues that Disney's output of films, television shows, theme parks, and spin-off items promoted diversity decades before such a concept gained popular currency in the 1990s. The author argues that Disney had a prophetic visio..."

    Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons

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    Author: Leonard Maltin

    "The author recreates the animation era from the silent days through the Hollywood golden age to Spielberg's An American Tail,  traces the evolution of the art of animation, and portrays the key creative talents and their studios. Drawing on colorful..."

    Out Of The Inkwell: Max Fleischer and The Animation Revolution

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    Author: Richard Fleischer

    "The book is Max Fleischer's biography showing  both his triumphs and disappointments. The topics covered in the book include Fleischer's invention of the rotoscope, running the company, and business matters, especially Max's disastrous 1938 decision..."

    Prime Time Animation: Television Animation and American Culture

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    Author: Carol Stabile

    "The contributors explore a series of key issues and questions, including: How do we explain the animation explosion of the 1960s? Why did it take nearly twenty years following the cancellation of The Flintstones for animation to find its feet again a..."

    Quotable Walt Disney

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    Author: Dave Smith

    "The author presents the triumphs and successes of Walt Disney by examining his philosophies and his dreams."

    Reading the Rabbit: Explorations in Warner Bros. Animation

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    Author: Kevin S. Sandler

    "This collection of essays looks at the history of Warner Bros. Animation, compares and contrasts it with Walt Disney Studio, charts the rise and fall of creativity and daring at Warner's, and analyzes the ways in which the studio was for a time trans..."

    Remembering Walt: Favorite Memories of Walt Disney

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    Author: Amy Boothe Green, Howard E. Green

    "More than 100 people, all Walt's contemporaries, recall the ways their lives were touched by him. Disney is portrayed as a perfectionist, storyteller, genius, boss and family member and friend. The book is richly illustrated and contains rare pictures."

    Rethinking Disney: Private Control, Public Dimensions

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    Author: Mike Budd

    "This is a collection of essays on Disney and his empire. The contributors cover such topics as Animal Kingdom, Gay Days at the theme parks, Disney's connection to sweatshops, commodification of The Lion King on Broadway, the transformation of Winnie ..."

    Serious Business: The Art and Commerce of Animation in America from Betty Boop to Toy Story

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    Author: Stefan Kanfer

    "This illustrated history of animation looks at the creation and celluloid careers of such American icons as Felix the Cat, Jiminy Cricket, Mickey and Minnie, Popeye and Olive Oyl, Goofy, Yogi Bear, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Daffy Duck, Tom and Jerry, ..."

    Seven Minutes: The Life and Death of the American Animated Cartoon

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    Author: Norman M. Klein

    "This is a history of the animated cartoon from the days before Mickey Mouse to the rise of Hanna-Barbera's animations. The author is interested almost exclusively in how and why the shape of the seven-minute cartoon short changed from Felix the Cat t..."

    Silent Animated Films at the Library of Congress

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    "Information on the more than 250 silent cartoons from before 1929 within the collection of the Library of Congress."

    Sound Theory, Sound Practice

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    Author: Rick Altman

    "This is a collection of essays that explore the importance of sound to cinema, from a theoretical as well as a historical perspective. Individual essays cover such topics as the conversion to sound, cartoon sound, documentary sound, and the voices of..."

    Talking Animals and Other People

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    Author: Shamus Culhane

    "The author was an animator who worked for such important animation studios as the Bray Studio, Warner Bros. Animation, The Fleischer Brothers, the Disney Studio and Paramount.   This book is both Culhane's memoir of his career and the history of an..."

    Team Rodent: How Disney Devours the World

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    Author: Carl Hiaasen

    "The author looks at the Disney monolith, which he argues is destroying the ecology, creating an unhealthy environment(physically and morally), has taken over the media, ruined Florida, New York, Southern California, and France and has its eyes on the..."

    Tex Avery: A Unique Legacy, 1942-1955

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    Author: Floriane Place-Verghnes

    "The author examines the work of Tex Avery.  The author first concentrates on Avery's ability to depict the American attempt both to retrieve the past nostalgically and to catch the Zeitgeist of 1940s America, which confronts the questions of violenc..."

    Tex Avery: King of Cartoons

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    Author: Joe Adamson

    "This is a biography of Tex Avery."

    That’s All Folks!: The Art of Warner Bros. Animation

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    Author: Steve Schneider

    "The author describes the history of Warner Bros. The first part of the book chronicles Warner's growth and development over four decades, while the second one contains short treatments of the major characters and their unique personalities. Factual m..."

    That’s Enough, Folks: Black Images in Animated Cartoons, 1900-1960

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    Author: Henry T. Sampson

    "Using advertisements, quotes from producers, newspaper reviews, & other sources, the author traces stereotypical black images through their transition from the first newspaper comic strips in the late 1890s, to their inclusion in the first silent..."

    That’s Not All, Folks: More Golden Looney Tunes

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    Author: Barbara Saltzman

    "The article provides information on The Golden Age of Looney Tunes, which is a four volume set of five discs each of pre-1949 cartoons."

    The 50 Greatest Cartoons: As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals

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    Author: Jerry Beck

    "This is a list of the 50 greatest animated cartoons, selected by a panel of more than 1,000 cartoon historians and animation professionals. The book contains a lot of photographs, illustrations and interviews."

    The Animation Guild (IATSE Local 839)

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    "Website for members of the animation guild. Information ranges from benefit information, a link to pay dues to employment opportunities and wage information."

    The Animation World in the Library of Congress

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    "Issue describes animation available at the Library of Congress, and explains how it came to be there."

    The Art of Hanna-Barbera: Fifty Years of Creativity

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    Author: Ted Sennett

    "Idea man William Hanna and artist Joseph Barbera created Tom and Jerry at MGM, then through revolutionary limited TV animation built today's thriving "General Motors of animation," home of The Flintstones and so many others. Reading like an official ..."

    The Art of Walt Disney: From Mickey Mouse to the Magic Kingdoms

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    Author: Christopher Finch

    "The book provides an in-depth examination of the artistic innovations of Walt Disney from early silents to the introduction of Mickey Mouse to Snow White, the first US feature-length cartoon, to the 1990s Disney animation renaissance. The author also..."

    The Big Cartoon Database

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    "This database contains information on over one hundred thousand works of animation. A typical entry may contain a full cast/crew list, the works country of origin, whether or not it is black and white or color, a list of the famous characters involve..."

    The Bigger Picture Film

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    "A radical animated film that uses mix-mediums of wall painting, stop-motion and 3-D props. "

    The Center for Cartoon Studies

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    "Here you can find information on faculty, admissions, programs, Schultz library, CSS studio and more. The Center for Cartoon Studies is located in Vermont."

    The Classic Felix the Cat Page

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    Author: David Gerstein

    "A resource chronicling Pat Sullivan's Felix the Cat through its golden age."

    The Comics Journal

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    "Blogs and columns about comics. The linked article traces the choice behind creating racist comics."

    The Complete Kodak Animation Book

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    Author: Charles Solomon

    "A survey of animation, its history, techniques, animators of the past and present, careers, and how to do it yourself."

    The Disney Films

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    Author: Leonard Maltin

    "In the first part of the book, the author examines Walt Disney's career from his early days as an entrepreneurial commercial artist up to his triumphant years as the head of an entertainment kingdom. In the second part of the book, the author present..."

    The Disney Version: The Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt Disney

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    Author: Richard Schickel

    "This history of Walt Disney's life and works asks penetrating questions about Disney's achievements and shortcomings, and the enormous popularity of the Disney version. The author examines topics such as Disney's empire and its influence on popular c..."

    The Encyclopedia of Animated Cartoons

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    Author: Jeff Lenburg

    "The book contains more than 2,200 cartoon entries, including cartoon creators, directors, production studios, voice talent, episode titles, and dates of release. The book also contains more than 150 illustrations, and a nutshell history of American a..."

    The Fleischer Story

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    Author: Leslie Cabarga

    "This is a biography of Max Fleischer."

    The Gospel According to Disney: Faith, Trust, and Pixie Dust

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    Author: Mark Pinsky

    "This book explores the role that Disney animated features have played in the moral and spiritual development of generations of children by exploring 31 of the most popular Disney films, as well as recent developments.  The author explores the moral,..."

    The Great Cartoon Directors

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    Author: Jeff Lenburg

    "The book is dedicated to the most prominent cartoon directors from the 1930's and the 1940's: Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Joe Barbera, Friz Freleng, Bill Hanna, Chuck Jones and others. This illustrated volume singles out these directors' finest cartoons..."

    The History of Animation: Enchanted Drawings

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    Author: Charles Solomon

    "This richly illustrated book tells the story of animation from its 18th century beginnings as a magic lantern show to the creation of Jurassic Park and The Lion King."

    The Jazz Museum In Harlem

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    "The Website for the Jazz Museum in Harlem. Includes current news, a photo gallery, a video archive and more."

    The Juba Project: Early Blackface Minstrelsy in Britain 1842-1852

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    "Website chronicles the infusion of blackface minstrelsy to Britain from America in 1942, and the genesis of the movement until 1952."

    The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life

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    Author: Steven Watts

    "Part biography and part cultural analysis, the book sheds new light on the cultural icon of "Uncle Walt".   The author offers a cultural study in hybrid biographical form that straddles the pros and cons of the Disney impact. As has been observed m..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1937-09-06

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    Author: Carl Ed, Les Forgrave, Chester Gould, King, Lichty, J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel, George McManus, Paul Robinson

    "Page 1Grin and Bear It (Lichty)Dick Tracy (Chester Gould) - "Crime Does Not Pay"Etta Kett (Paul Robinson) - "The Modern Miss"Dixie Dugan (J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel) - "Thomas Slips a Mooring"Big Sister (Leslie Forgrave) - "Under Cover"Bringing ..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1937-09-07

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    Author: Carl Anderson, Branner, Fanny Cory, Carl Ed, Gus Edson, Les Forgrave, Chester Gould, Zane Grey, King, Lichty, J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel, George McManus, William Ritt and Clarence Gray, Paul Robinson, George Swan

    "Page 1Grin and Bear it (Lichty)Dick Tracy (Chester Gould) - "Crime Does Not Pay"Etta Kett (Paul Robinson) - "The Depths of Reason"Dixie Dugan (J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel) - "The Love Birds" Big Sister (Leslie Forgrave)- "As It Glitters" Bringing..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1937-12-06

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    Author: Carl Ed, Les Forgrave, Chester Gould, King, Lichty, J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel, George McManus, Paul Robinson

    "Page 1Grin and Bear it (Lichty)Dick Tracy (Chester Gould)- "Crime Does Not Pay"Etta Kett (Paul Robinson) - "Music to His Ears"Dixie Dugan (J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel) - "She Isn't Through Yet!"Big Sister (Leslie Forgrave) - "The Boys are Being W..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1937-12-07

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    Author: Carl Anderson, Branner, Fanny Cory, Gus Edson, Zane Grey, William Ritt and Clarence Gray, George Swan

    "Page 1Brick Bradford (William Ritt and Clarence Gray) - "What Is Brick Up To?"Little Miss Muffet (Fanny Cory) - "Something Is Wrong"Henry (Carl Anderson)- "The Wonder Child"The Gumps (Gus Edson) - "Min's Not So Dumb"King of the Royal Mounted (Zane Gr..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1937-12-08

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    Author: Carl Ed, Les Forgrave, Chester Gould, King, Lichty, J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel, George McManus, Paul Robinson

    "Page 1Grin and Bear It (Lichty)Dick Tracy (Chester Gould)- "Crime Does Not Pay"Etta Kett (Paul Robinson) - "Happy Days!"Dixie Dugan (J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel) - "Danger!"Big Sister (Leslie Forgrave) - "A Turkey is Nearby"Bringing Up Father (G..."

    The Minneapolis Journal – 1938-03-27

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    Author: Gene Ahern, Carl Anderson, Ed Anthony, Branner, Loy Byrnes, Edwina Dumm, Carl Ed, Gus Edson, Zane Grey, Chester Gould, Bill Holman, Frank King, Ed Leffingwell, Lichty, J.P. McEvoy and J.H. Striebel, George McManus, Zack Mosley, Al Posen, Paul Robinson, Sidney Smith

    "Page 1Dick Tracy (Chester Gould).Page 3Henry (Carl Anderson)The Pussycat Princess (Ed Anthony)

    The Minneapolis Journal – undated

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    Author: Edwin Alger, Carl Anderson, Branner, Fanny Cory, Carl Ed, Gus Edson, Les Forgave, Zane Grey, King, Lichty, J. P. McEvoy and J. H. Striebel, George McManus, Paul Robinson, George Swan

    " Page 1Little Miss Muffet (Fanny Cory) - "Cook's Help"Etta Kett (Paul Robinson) - "The Life of Parents"The Gumps (Sidney Smith) - "Ma's Obsession"Ben Webster's Career (Edwin Alger) - "Checking Up"Winnie Winkle, the Breadwinner (Branner) - "Doubl..."

    The Minneapolis Tribune – 1937-07-04

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    Author: Harold Gray, Martha Orr, Alex Raymond, Russ Westover, Frank Willard

    "Page 1Apple Mary (Martha Orr)The Clue of the Copper Screen (Martha Orr)Page 3Jungle Jim (Alex Raymond)Flash Gordon (Alex Raymond)

    The Minneapolis Tribune – 1937-08-30

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    Author: Walt Disney, Charles Flanders, Fonteine Fox, Harold Gray, Jimmy Hatlo, Sol Hess, Martha Orr, E. C. Segar, Chic Young

    "Page 1The Nebbs (Sol Hess) - "Crushed"Secret Agent X9  (Charles Flanders) - "Answers to the G-Man's Questions"Popeye, the Sailorman (Segar) - "Poor Little Rich Boy"Blondie (Chic Young) - "Well, It Coulda Been a Centipeed!"Mickey Mouse (Walt Disney) ..."

    The Minneapolis Tribune – 1937-12-07

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    Author: Walt Disney, Charles Flanders, Fonteine Fox, Harold Gray, Jimmy Hatlo, Sol Hess, Martha Orr, E. C. Segar, Frank Willard, Chic Young

    "Page 1The Nebbs (Sol Hess)- "Independence"Secret Agent X9 (Charles Flanders) - "Trapped in the House of Mystery"Popeye, the Sailorman (Segar) - "The Goon-Catcher"Blondie (Chic Young) - "By Way of Verification"Mickey Mouse (Walt Disney) - "A Double in..."

    The Minneapolis Tribune – 1937-12-08

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    Author: Walt Disney, Charles Flanders, Fonteine Fox, Harold Gray, Jimmy Hatlo, Sol Hess, Martha Orr, E. C. Segar, Chic Young

    "Page 1The Neebs (Sol Hess) - "Money Shouts"Secret Agent x9 (Charles Flanders) - "A Startling Message" Popeye, the Sailorman (E.C. Segar) - "Goon-Bait"Blondie (Chic Young) - "Expressing His Feelings" Mickey Mouse (Walt Disney) - "A Surprising Denial..."